CARM Affiliates

Academic conversation analysts who are using CARM to apply their research findings across different settings and training environments. Below is a current list of CARM Affiliates, along with their area of expertise, underpinning research and contact details.

Dr Marc Alexander

Marc Alexander is a Teaching Fellow in the School of Psychology, Keele University. His research uses conversation analysis and discursive psychology to examine interactions in institutional settings. He completed his PhD in 2019 at Loughborough University under the supervision of Elizabeth Stokoe and Rein Sikveland. His thesis examined calls from members of the public to three UK organisations (mediation, environmental health, and antisocial behaviour services), in which neighbour problems were reported and managed. The applied outcome of his thesis is communication training for call-takers to help manage the requirements of the role.

Following his PhD, Marc collaborated with the Shelter housing charity, and examined calls from people in housing/homelessness crisis. Marc developed his findings into a CARM workshop for call-centre staff, which was delivered in 2020. Marc is currently collaborating on projects examining domestic violence calls to the police, and recordings of meetings between social workers and their team managers.

Alexander, M., & Stokoe, E. (2019). Problems in the neighbourhood: Formulating noise complaints across dispute resolution services. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 29(5), 355-370.

Dr Magnus Hamann

Magnus did his PhD at the Department of Linguistics at Aarhus University, focussing on memory and engagement in interactions with people with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Magnus is currently working on a research project at the University of Southampton, on “doing cancer referrals” in GP consultations. This project focuses primarily on management of “being worried”, as well as other issues of morality in GP consultations. Magnus is also currently working on a CARM project investigating how calltakers at a vet service manage clients’ inquiries. One point of interest in this project is in dealing with caller emotion.

Dr Natacha Niemants

Natacha Niemants graduated in interpreting at the University of Bologna and received her PhD in Comparative languages and cultures from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, where she worked for four years as a post-doc. She is now Senior assistant professor at the Department of Interpreting and Translation of the University of Bologna, where she teaches French-Italian conference and dialogue interpreting. Her research interests include interpreting in healthcare, interpreter training, transcription, and conversation analysis. She has published papers in books (John Benjamins, Peter Lang, Lambert-Lucas, L’Harmattan) and international journals, is author of L’interprétation de dialogue en milieu médical: Du jeu de rôle à l’exercice d’une responsabilité (Aracne, 2015), and in collaboration with Letizia Cirillo she has edited the volume Teaching Dialogue Interpreting. Research-based proposals for higher education (John Benjamins, 2017), where CARM has been used in interpreter training.

Niemants N. & E. Stokoe (2017) “Using the Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method in healthcare interpreter education”. In L. Cirillo & N. Niemants (eds.), Teaching dialogue interpreting. Research-based proposals for higher education. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 294-321.

Dr Wyke Stommel

Wyke Stommel holds an MA in Dutch Language and Culture and a PhD in Sociology. Since 2012, she has worked as an Assistant Professor in Language and Communication at Radboud University (Netherlands). Her main research interest lies in the analysis of institutional interactions (medical consultations, shared decision making, telephone counseling, police interviews) and the application of Conversation Analysis to mediated forms of interaction (videomediated consultations, chat and e-mail counseling, online forum interaction). Her research is published in journals such as Research on Language and Social Interaction, Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Studies. In 2013, she co-founded the international network of MOOD (Microanalysis Of Online Data). Wyke developed a CARM-workshop for the Dutch national institute for mental health Trimbos Institute, based on the following article:

Stommel, Wyke (2018). Asking for information about alcohol or drugs: A conversation analysis of  telephone calls to a Dutch information service [Informatie vragen over alcohol of drugs: een conversatieanalyse van telefoongesprekken met een Nederlandse informatiedienst]. Tijdschrift voor Taalbeheersing 40 (3): 303–325, doi: 10.5117/TVT2018.3.002.STOM.


Dr Emily Hofstetter

Emily Hofstetter is a conversation analyst, with expertise in examining institutional settings. She develops communication training out of her research using the CARM approach. She is also examining health and safety professionals in the UK and how better communication of safety protocol can improve workplace safety and ease interactions where staff may have to alter their behaviour to be safety compliant. She is currently a research fellow at Linköping University.

Emily completed her PhD in 2016, under the supervision of Prof. Elizabeth Stokoe. Her doctoral research examined the day-to-day work of an ‘MP surgery’, where Members of Parliament and their caseworkers meet individual citizens to help them with local or personal difficulties. The applied outcome of her thesis is communication training for constituency caseworkers to help manage the demands of the role.

Dr Bogdana Huma

Bogdana is a lecturer in Social Psychology at York St John University. Her research uses conversation analysis and discursive psychology to examine persuasion and resistance ‘in the wild’. She completed her PhD in 2018 at Loughborough University under the supervision of Professor Elizabeth Stokoe. Her thesis examined business-to-business ‘cold’ calls between salespeople and prospective customers. It focused on how salespeople pursue and achieve prospecting goals such as getting to speak to the ‘relevant’ person, making an appointment to visit a prospective client, and overcoming sales resistance. So far, her research has informed CARM workshops delivered to salespeople doing business-to-business telesales.

Huma, B., Stokoe, E. H., & Sikveland, R. O. (2019). Persuasive conduct. Alignment and resistance in prospecting “cold” calls. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 38(1), 33–60.

Dr Elliott Hoey

Elliott Hoey has collaborated with Prof. Elizabeth Stokoe on a project aimed at improving telephone calls between prospective university students and university representatives. This resulted in a set of recommendations that were delivered to the university, and an analysis of how call-takers produced or avoided overt rejections.

In his current post-doctoral research at the University of Basel, he is investigating how workers on construction sites transition between autonomous activity and closely coordinated activity. Other recent work has addressed the placement of sighing and drinking in interaction, participant’s conduct during lapses in conversation, and imitation in children’s locomotor play.

Stokoe, E., & Hoey, E. (2017). Going through university clearing? Then make sure you do these four things. The Conversation, August 2017.

Professor Hansun Zhang Waring

Hansun Zhang Waring is Professor of Linguistics and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University and founder of The Language and Social Interaction Working Group (LANSI). As a conversation analyst and applied linguist, Hansun has produced most of her research in pedagogical contexts. She is the author (with Jean Wong) of Conversation Analysis and Second Language Pedagogy (Routledge, 2010) and Theorizing Pedagogical Interaction: Insights from Conversation Analysis (Routledge, 2016), and Discourse Analysis: The Questions Discourse Analysts Ask and How they Answer them (Routledge, 2018). Her recent projects include how socialization may be located in parent-child interaction and how funding agency representatives communicate with the public.

Waring, H. Z., Reddington, E., Yu, D., & Clemente, I. (2018). Going general: Responding to yes-no questions in informational webinars for prospective grant applicants. Discourse & Communication.

Dr Jon Symonds

Jon Symonds is a Lecturer in Social Work researcher at the University of Bristol. In his PhD, he applied conversation analysis to investigate the recruitment of fathers to parenting services, finding the relevance of using his name in invitations and the methods by which practitioners sought to establish his name in earlier interaction. In subsequent work, Jon has used conversation analysis to investigate social work assessments with adults with care and support needs, the interactions of GP receptionists in appointment-making calls and the practical management of GP consultations where a child has an acute cough. He has a particular interest in combining conversation analysis with quantitative methods and outcome measures to intervene in social work interactions with different service user groups.

Symonds, J. (2015). ‘Have you got a partner as well?’: engaging fathers and other carers in parenting services: a study using conversation analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Bristol.

Dr William A. Tuccio

Bill Tuccio was a regional airline pilot and has diverse experience in engineering, aviation, flight instruction, software engineering, accident investigation (specializing in ‘black box’ voice and video recordings), and conversation analysis. His PhD in Aviation dissertation explored interventionist conversation analysis for pilot training.

Working with over 100 hours of small plane flight instruction cockpit video and audio, Bill and Maurice Nevile investigated how CARM may be applied to improve the efficacy of flight instructors. In addition to published research, Bill delivered FAA-sponsored continuing education seminars for flight instructors (via

Tuccio, W. A., & Nevile, M. (2017). Using Conversation Analysis in Data-Driven Aviation Training with Large-Scale Qualitative Datasets. Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research, 26(1).

Dr Laura Jenkins

Laura’s conversation analytic work began examining matters of health in everyday family life, looking particularly at what happens when children say that they are in pain. Since then her work has focused on medical encounters. At the University of Sheffield she looked at how doctors ask adult patients about their seizures. Laura used the CARM approach to show neurology doctors how to design their questions in a way that gives patients more chance to talk, because the way in which patients describe their seizures can give clues as to what is causing them.

Laura is now a research fellow at Loughborough University. She’s part of the VERDIS research project focusing on healthcare communication in end of life care. The aim of the project is to identify communication practices that support collaborative decision-making through analysis of video-recordings of hospice consultations, and to use these findings to develop training materials. Laura is examining the ways in which doctors assess a patient’s pain.

Jenkins, L., Cosgrove, J., Chappell, P., Kheder, A., Sokhi, D., & Reuber, R. (2016) Neurologists can identify diagnostic linguistic features during routine seizure clinic interactions: results of a one-day teaching intervention. Epilepsy and Behavior, 64(A), 257–261

Dr Steve Kirkwood

Dr Steve Kirkwood is a senior lecturer in Social Work and his research focuses on justice and identity, particularly on criminal justice social work and the integration of asylum seekers and refugees. He has applied discourse analysis and conversation analysis to the study of criminal justice practices for addressing offending behaviour and has used the CARM approach in knowledge exchange settings with social workers.

Kirkwood, S., Jennings, B., Laurier, E., Cree, V. E. & Whyte, B. (2016). Towards an interactional approach to reflective practice in social work. European Journal of Social Work, 19, 484-499.

Dr Heidi Feldman

Dr. Heidi K. Feldman is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at Northeastern University. Dr. Feldman applies the method of conversation analysis to provide accounts for where and how miscommunication occurs during different types of service calls (e.g. customer service; 911 dispatch, etc.). Recent areas of investigation include how 911 dispatchers handle ‘active’ silent calls, where it unsafe for callers to verbally communicate their emergency, and how dispatchers ‘retrieve’ a fleeing caller in domestic disturbance calls. Dr. Feldman has conducted extensive research in customer service management, with a particular focus on how customers work to get additional service beyond what an organization is willing to provide. Her work has practical implications for training, and she offers best practices based on research grounded in the actual interaction between organizational members and their callers.

Dr Mario Veen

Mario Veen is a philosopher and educational researcher who has been doing conversation analytic work for since 2005. His PhD explored how discourse analysis can be used to assess emergent medical technologies from patients’ perspective. He is currently examining the way GP residents collaboratively reflect on experiences from practice, and evidence of critical thinking in group discussions. His work and interests focus on medical education, interactions addressing medical, psychological or philosophical topics, group interaction, and discursive approaches to reflection and critical thinking.

Veen, M., & De la Croix, A. (2016). Collaborative reflection under the microscope: Using conversation analysis to study the transition from case presentation to discussion in GP residents’ experience sharing sessions. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 28(1): 3-14.

Dr Marco Pino

Marco’s expertise is in conversation analysis and healthcare communication. His PhD focused on how support workers talk to clients within addiction rehabilitation programs that use the Therapeutic Community approach. He has recently been awarded a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Research Fellowship by the European Commission to continue his line of research on Therapeutic Communities (TC). Marco is currently focusing on communication practices involved in challenging clients’ behaviours and perspectives that are seen as dysfunctional or unhelpful for the therapeutic process. He is also examining how TC members initiate and resolve episodes of conflictual communication.

Marco’s research explores some of the building blocks of healthcare communication: sharing experiences and problems, addressing client complaints and requests, and managing delicate topics such as terminal illness and dying. Marco is using his research findings in the design of CARM workshops to improve professional-client communication in the addiction rehabilitation sector. Marco is also collaborating with Ruth Parry on a study on communication in end of life care.

Pino, M. (2016). Delivering criticism through anecdotes in interaction. Discourse Studies, 18(6), 1-21.

Dr Elina Weiste

Elina Weiste is a qualitative health care researcher and conversation analyst. She has a PhD in sociology and a clinical degree in occupational therapy. In her PhD, she explored how therapeutic relationships are managed in clinical interaction. Elina’s research explores some of the building blocks of the therapeutic relationship: how clients’ problems are negotiated and formulated at the beginning of the therapy, how therapists express empathy and respond to the clients’ talk on their subjective emotional experiences, how the therapists work with experiences that belong to the clients’ personal domains of knowledge and how disagreements are expressed and relational stress managed in therapeutic interaction. Elina studies interaction in different types of psychiatric consultation (e.g., diagnostic interviews and case manager consultations) and therapeutic approaches (e.g., psychoanalysis, cognitive psychotherapy, resource-centred counselling and interpersonal counselling). Elina is using her research findings in the design of CARM workshops to improve clinician-client interaction in the fields of rehabilitation and mental health care.

Weiste, E. (2017). Relational interaction in occupational therapy: conversation analysis of positive appraisals. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 1, 1-11.

Dr Sarah White

Sarah J White is a conversation analyst and qualitative health researcher with a particular interest in researching communication in clinical practice, particularly consultations between doctors and patients. Sarah was awarded her PhD from the University of Otago in 2011 and has professional and academic experience in clinical communication, quality and safety in health care, and medical education.

White, S. J., Stubbe, M. H., Macdonald, L. M., Dowell, A. C., Dew, K. P., & Gardner, R. (2014). Framing the Consultation: The Role of the Referral in Surgeon–Patient Consultations. Health Communication29(1), 74-80.

Professor Ann Weatherall

Professor Ann Weatherall is a university academic that leads, supervises and collaborates in studies of social interaction. The settings of her research include telephone-mediated helplines, courtroom interaction, medical interactions and psychotheraputic interviews; see

Weatherall, A. (2016).  ‘I need to get some details first’ Record keeping as a potential barrier to effective complaint-call management.  Mediation Theory and Practice, 1, 35-57.